uranium its uses and hazards institute for energy anduranium238, the most prevalent isotope in uranium ore, has a halflife of about 4.5 billion s; that is, half the atoms in any sample will decay in that amount of time. uranium238 decays by alpha emission into thorium234, which itself decays by beta emission to protactinium234, which decays by beta emission to uranium234, and so on.bastnäsite bastnäsite gets its name from its type locality, the bastnäs mine, riddarhyttan, västmanland, sweden. ore from the bastnäs mine led to the discovery of several new minerals and chemical elements by swedish scientists such as jöns jakob berzelius, wilhelm hisinger and carl gustav mosander.among these are the chemical elements cerium, which was described by hisinger in 03, and lanthanum
uranium mining uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground. the worldwide production of uranium in amounted to 53,656 tonnes. kazakhstan, canada, and australia were the top three uranium producers, respectively, and together account for 68% of world production. other countries producing more than 1, tonnes per included namibia, niger, russia, uzbekistan, the unitedaluminium geoscience australiaprocessing. in almost all commercial operations, alumina is extracted from the bauxite by the bayer refining process. the process, discovered by karl josef bayer in 88, consists of four stages. digestion the finely ground bauxite is fed into a steamheated unit called a digester. here it is mixed, under pressure, with a hot solution of
the thorium molten salt reactor thorium msr foundationbut in a molten salt reactor one can also use thorium as a fuel and it is estimated that there is a factor 3 more thorium on earth that uranium. thorium is easily accessible and at this moment is mostly a byproduct of rareearth mining. there is also thorium dissolved in ocean water. thorium and uranium are a truly sustainable source of energy.naturally occurring radioactive material iaearadionuclides of natural origin contained in or released from process materials may pose a risk to workers, public or the environment. these radioactive elements in minerals and ores originally found in the environment are commonly known as norm naturally occurring radioactive material. some norm materials require radiation control and regulation.