a critical review of thickener design methods ta critical review of thickener design methods t f. concha and a. barrientos department of metallurgical engineering university of concepcion* abstract in this work we analyze, in the light of their physical foundation, the different methods of thickener design that have been proposed in the literature.q2 a) calculate the minimum area of a thickener chegg transcribed image text q2 a) calculate the minimum area of a thickener required to handle 2.7 tonnes per hour of solids given the data shown in the table below. the fed concentration is 300 kg/m and the underflow concentration is 1,5 kg/m? (30 marks) laboratory test data concentration (kg/m) settling velocity (um/s) 2 2.9 255 1.2 303 81.4 358 62.4 4 48.8 502 36.7 577 30.4 6 27.5thickeners solid liquid separationthickeners. the separation of solids from a liquid by gravity sedimentation has traces to the early days of civilization. the normal practice at those times was to use jars or pits mainly for the clarification of extracted liquids such as wine or olive oil from contaminating insoluble matter. these batch processes required four separate stepsadvanced thickener control outotecjun , · thickener underflow density is a function of the solids ability to settle and the residence time in the thickener. systems that attempt to control density from the density measurement tend to cause cyclic instability. here, the advanced control calculationsunderstanding polymer for thickening andthis calculation can be applied to either neat polymer or polymer solution.%)) for example, in u.s. customary units if the desired polymer dose is 10 active lb/dry ton, the flow rate to a rotary drum thickener (solids flow rate) is 350 gpm, the rotary drum thickener feed solids concentration (solids concentration) is 0.75%, andbeginners guide to thickeners outotecjun , · feedwells and flocculant dosing control have a significant influence on thickener performance. flocculation is controlled by varying the flocculant pump speed to achieve a consistent flocculant dosage rate per ton of dry solids feed. care should be taken to ensure that flocculant dilution is maintained with changes in flocculant dosing rate.chapter 3 sludge thickening marmarasolids throughput is an important criterion in the design of thickeners. the design is mostly based on the solids flux, i.e. kg solids/h/m2. typical flux values are given in table 2. table 2. typical flux values (kg solids/h/m2). activated sludge 0.8 1.0 trickling filter humus 1.8document' resume se 041 599 author klopping, paul ha thickener. the list includes a. control solids retention'timè. b. control speed of collector. c. control sludge blanket depth. . define and calculate hydraulic loading. ' . recall typical hydraulic loading on a gravity thickener is. 400 800 gpd/sq. ft.. 7. gt3, of . /80batch sedimentation, clarifiers slidesharedec 09, · thickener area calculation where a = area (m2) q0 = feed rate of suspension (m3/s) y = mass ratio liquid to solid in feed u = mass ratio liquid to solid in underflow c = particle volume fraction (1ε) ρs = density of solid (kg/m3) ut = terminal velocitylamella clarifier graver water marmon industrial waterlamella inclined plate clarifier. the graver lamella design utilizes inclined plate clarification to separate solids from the water and clarify the water. the lamella is composed of a series of removable parallel plates commonly referred to as lamella plates.sludge thickening and dewatering sludge treatment systemsludge thickening and dewatering is two important stages in treating sludge. thickening is the first step of sludge treatment in which the solids concentration is increased and the total sludge volume is correspondingly decreased, thickening commonly produces sludge solids concentrations between % and %, lzzg deep cone thickener results ingbt gravity belt thickenerthe gravity belt thickener is used to thicken sludge prior to centrifuge or digestion processes. a mix of primary or secondary sludge can easily be thickened to +7% wt, pure secondary to over 5%. the gbt offers high unit capacity per floor space low residence time eliminates septicity and float scum superior thickening lowimprove clarifier and thickener design and operationclarifiers vs. thickenerstypes of settlingtheory of batch fluxdiameter and depthdesign objectivedetermining the batch flux curveapplications to thickener designthickener in operationapplications to clarifier designapplications to thickener operationclarifiers and thickeners are separation devices. they are common in waste treatment operations as well as in other chemical operations. these devices separate two phases by differences in their density. clarifiers and thickeners are essentially identical units; a clarifier produces clean water, while a thickener concentrates a solids slurry as the desired product. in this discussion, thickener will be used to describe both units. also, a gravity separation of solids from water is assumed to take place. the most common unit is a circular thicken
advanced thickener control outotecjun , · thickener underflow density is a function of the solids ability to settle and the residence time in the thickener. systems that attempt to control density from the density measurement tend to cause cyclic instability. here, the advanced control calculations can take place on a higher level act system that sits above the sites processthickening andritzdrum thickener reliable thickening and dewatering of pulps. the performance of the gravity drum thickener is based on decades of experience in thickening. the andritz drum thickener is a simple, cost efficient, and reliable filter for applications in a consistency range of 0.55.0%.sludge thickening concentration wastewater treatmentmay , · sludge thickening concentration. last updated on wed, may wastewater treatment. further sludge concentration is first accomplished by the use of thickening equipment that will increase the solids content to between 2% and 5%. sludge thickening is achieved through one of two means flotation and settling to the bottom by gravity or understanding the thickening processthe thickening process is the primary method of producing high solids slurries for the minerals industry. thickener outputs can accommodate a range of tailings disposal options from low yield thickener design, control and developmentthe common thickener underpins the performance of most hydrometallurgical facilities. thickeners are simple, reliable, effective and efficientunder the right conditions.a critical review of thickener design methods ta critical review of thickener design methods t f. concha and a. barrientos department of metallurgical engineering university of concepcion* abstract in this work we analyze, in the light of their physical foundation, the different methods of thickener design that have been proposed in the literature.investigation and design of a picket fence thickener fordesign based on calculations is not practical for a real life environment as, among other factors, the loadings on the pft change due to weather conditions, sludge quality and backwash cycle durations. design based on industry standards. picket fence thickeners based on this design rely on several very important factors.measuring settling rates and calculating thickenermar 03, · the following is an illustration of the method used in computing the area and depth required in a thickener to handle 100 tons of pulp per day, thickening from 6 parts fluid to 1 part solids down to 1. parts fluid to 1 part solids. fig.7 slimesettling data, nipissing lowgrade mill, cobalt, ont.estimated reading time 9 mins understanding the thickening processthe thickening process is the primary method of producing high solids slurries for the minerals industry. thickener outputs can accommodate a range of tailings disposal options from low yield further development of software for the design and(fig. ). another possibility is to design the thickener for %l and the final results of the design procedure are a unit area to calculate the thickener capacity allowing other heights for of ua = 1.09 m2 /tpd, a thickener diameter of d = 77 m and the sediment from zc = to 100%.q2 a) calculate the minimum area of a thickener chegg chemical engineering questions and answers. q2 a) calculate the minimum area of a thickener required to handle 2.7 tonnes per hour of solids given the data shown in the table below. the fed concentration is 300 kg/m and the underflow concentration is 1,5 kg/m? (30 marks) laboratory test data concentration (kg/m) settling velocity (um/s) 2investigation and design of a picket fence thickener fordesign based on calculations is not practical for a real life environment as, among other factors, the loadings on the pft change due to weather conditions, sludge quality and backwash cycle durations. design based on industry standards. picket fence thickeners based on this design rely on several very important factors.
how to size a thickener mineral processing metallurgymar 08, · thickener area required is then calculated by applying above determined data in the following formula a = 1.333 (f d)/r a = thickener area in square feet per ton of dryestimated reading time 6 minsconcrete volume and rebar calculator inchconcrete volume calculator section view diagram first, draw the shape of the slab starting at top left of plan, enter side lengths clockwise around slab (top left toliquid soap diluting, thickening soapy stuffmethod 3b. control thickness with cellulose or gumbased thickeners. a separate cellulosebased thickener such as hec (hydroxyethyl cellulose) or hpmc (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) can be used to thicken liquid soap. other thickeners that have been used for thickeningcalculation of thickener area and depth based on the datajan 01, 85· conclusions the calculational method of the thickener presented in this paper is based on simple equations, eqn and eqn , especially useful for numerical calculations. the thickener area is directly obtained by differentiation of heighttime relationship and thickcited by tailings paste disposal more than water recoverypaste thickeners thicken tailings to higher underflow solids concentrations than conventional and highrate thickeners. for example, a tailings stream in an iron ore application could be thickened to 4550% solids in conventional or highrate thickeners. conversely, the same tailings stream could be thickened to 6570% solids using a paste[ppt]powerpoint presentationtraditional gravity thickening. changes in sludge quality or process variations often can have negative process affects. operational changes in gravity thickening processes may not be realized for twentyfour hours or more, resulting in inconsistent thickened sludge and over/under dosing of polymerabout food and beverage thickening agentsthickening over time starchbased powder thickeners may thicken over time, especially the liquid and powder are not measured initially. gumbased powder thickeners will h their initial consistency over time. gel thickeners will h the initial consistency over time. prethickened drinks will not change consistency but theythickener optimization in your mining process endress+hauseraccurate online calculation of solids content. better water utilization. optimize the performance of your thickener. the thickening process is a fundamental step in modern mining separation processes. thickening is the separation of suspended particles from a liquid by gravity settling. for effective thickener control, six measurements aregelmix infant thickener thicken breast milk formulagelmix, a hypoallergenic, usda organic thickener for breast milk and infant formula, consists of an offwhite fine powder that is tasteless, odorless and smooth when dissolved. it is the first usda organic thickener specifically formulated for pediatric use in america.chapter 5 sludge treatment islamic university of gazathe depth at the center of the thickener is calculated by adding (h) to h5,. h5d thickenerdiameter d to calculate (h4), the thickening zone height, we assume that this zone has a4 x flowrate 4 x 0 π riserate mip processwe generally operate at a thickener rake speed of 8 to m/min thus gearbox output rpm = = rake tip speed (m/min) π x diameter (m) = 8 π x = 0. rpm (d) electric motor sizing to size an electric motor, we would use the following calculation; p = 2 π n t 60 x e x 1gravity belt thickener komlinesandersongravity belt thickener model selection is a function of hydraulic feed rate; the model g25 thickening system is generally appropriate for 0.5% to 1.0% waste activated sludge feed rates up to 5 gpm (7.9 liters/sec or 28 m3/h) and the gsc and gsce series machines are appropriate for higher feed rates.lesson 29 biosolids thickening calculationsbiosolids thickening calculations are based on the concept that the solids in the primary or secondary biosolids are equal to the solids in the thickened biosolids. that is, assuming that a negligible amount of solids are lost in the thickener overflow, the solids are the same.